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PED Profiles
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PED Profiles - 11-03-2011, 09:02 AM

Accutane (isotretinoin)



Isotretinoin is an anti-acne medication that is chemically related to retinoic acid and retinol (vitamin A). Although its exact mode of action is unknown, this agent works by inhibiting sebaceous gland functioning, which diminishes oil production in the skin and hinders acne development. This product is sold in many countries throughout the world, and is largely recognized as one of the most effective medications available for treating severe acne. Studies also suggest that it has one of the highest success rates with even the strongest cases of clinical acne. Given that acne is one of the most common side effects of anabolic/androgenic steroid use, isotretinoin is utilized by bodybuilders and athletes to reduce or eliminate this cosmetic issue during steroid therapy. Isotretinoin was developed by the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-La Roche, and was first introduced as a drug medication in 1982. The company marketed it under the brand name of Accutane, and retained the patent rights until 2002. Now that the patent has expired, there are a number of generic versions of the drug available. Isotretinoin is not a controlled substance, but has been regulated by the FDA in recent years due to potential side effects. Due to this, there are some very strict guidelines in place for prescribing the drug. Isotretinoin is most commonly supplied in soft gel like capsules of 10, 20, and 40mg.

Acne occurs due to an excessive production of sebum from over-active sebaceous glands in the skin. The sebum blocks the sebaceous glands, which prevents the oil from flowing freely out and causes an accumulation of sebum under the skin. The bacteria associated with acne thrive in these conditions. They feed on the sebum, and produce waste products and fatty acids that irritate the sebaceous glands, making them inflamed and causing spots. Isotretinoin decreases the size and activity of the sebaceous glands in the skin, which reduces the amount of sebum that is produced. This stops the glands becoming blocked, and means bacteria are less likely to thrive. It also reduces the inflammation in the skin. Isotretinoin can have serious side effects and its use must be supervised by a dermatologist. It is reserved for the treatment of severe acne that has not improved with a course of oral antibiotics, and for acne with cyst formation. The user’s acne may worsen at the start of treatment, but this usually subsides within 7 to 10 days of continued treatment. In most cases, complete or near-complete clearing of acne is achieved with a 12 to 16 week course of treatment, and you are likely to remain free of acne for a long time. Repeat courses are not normally recommended, unless a definite relapse is seen after treatment is stopped. Isotretinoin is a powerful medication with many potential side effects. The drug has stirred up quite a controversy due to the fact that it has been linked to birth defects. Any woman who might potentially be or become pregnant should not go near this drug due to this. The drug has also been linked to depression and suicide due to the effects that it has on certain parts of the brain that affect depression and well being.

Accutane comes as a capsule to take by mouth. Accutane usually is taken twice a day. Users are urged to take Accutane with food or milk because it is believed to increase the absorption rate. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take Accutane exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor. You may not notice any improvement in your condition until after 4-6 weeks of treatment, and your acne may actually get worse during the first few weeks. Your acne should improve within 15-20 weeks. If it does not improve, your doctor will probably stop giving you Accutane for 8 weeks and then restart your treatment.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:38 PM.
   
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Albuterol sulfate
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Albuterol sulfate - 11-03-2011, 09:03 AM



Albuterol sulfate is a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, very similar in structure and action to the popular weight loss aid clenbuterol. Unlike clenbuterol, however, albuterol is readily available as a prescription drug in the United States. It is also sold under other brand names in a number of other countries worldwide. Albuterol is most commonly found in the form of a rescue inhaler, which is designed to disperse a measured amount of the drug immediately and directly to the bronchial tubes in times of crisis (asthma attack). This form provides the least amount of systemic drug activity possible, which is great for minimizing unwanted cardiovascular side effects. Albuterol oral tablets are also available, however, and provide a systemic drug activity possible, which is great for minimizing unwanted cardiovascular side effects. Albuterol sulfate was introduced to the U.S drug market in 1980, sold under the Ventolin brand name. Albuterol sulfate has grown to be one of the most popular drugs in history for the management of acture asthma attacks. As a result, many other companies have invested in the market. The FDA has approved a number of generic preparations of the drug.

For strength athletes, bodybuilders and others who are seeking to improve performance or their physical appearance, albuterol offers numerous benefits. For the most part, it is most often considered a “fat burner” in the bodybuilding community. This is due to the ability of the drug to stimulate fat cells, increase lypolysis, decrease appetite, increase body temperature, as well as increasing basal metabolic rate, among other things. All of these factors, when combined with proper diet and training, would obviously help to increase the rate of fat loss in users. However the use of albuterol is not limited to simply fat loss. There is evidence that it can help to dramatically improve athletic performance as well as helping to contribute to anabolism. It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that the use of albuterol can help to increase muscular strength in users. These are often accompanied by increases in muscle mass. Specifically, in one such study it was noted that users of albuterol showed much greater improvements in strength when compared to a control group, after both groups had previously been training for ten weeks with no significant differences in their progress. The group given albuterol also showed larger increases in lean body mass. The doses for these individuals began at 4 milligrams per day, given orally, and were increased and then maintained at 16 milligrams per day for the duration of the study. Similar findings were made in another study where the subjects only trained their quadriceps muscles. Again, both gains in strength and muscle size were noted in the group that was administered albuterol during their training. However the performance enhancing ability of albuterol is seemingly not limited to strength training. It was shown that the times of users performing endurance exercises significantly improved with the use of albuterol. Interestingly these improvements were accomplished without the drug negatively impacting the VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate or plasma free fatty acid and glycerol concentration of users during the exercise conducted. Rather the plasma lactate and potassium concentrations were altered. This would all bode well for endurance athletes who are looking to improve their athletic output and not negatively impact other areas of their performance capabilities.

Users will often start their dosing at around 1-2 4mg tablets per day and will up the dosage as their individual tolerance allows for. Users often take their temperature and use an increase in temperature as a gauge to what effect the drug is having. It is important to note that after 2-3 weeks, the receptors will become burn out to stimulation. Because of this, users will often cycle usage of around 2 weeks on and 2 weeks off the substance to give the receptors time to refresh so that the drug will regain effectiveness.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:38 PM.
   
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Bromocriptine
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Bromocriptine - 11-03-2011, 09:03 AM



Bromocriptine mesylate is a dopaminomimetic ergot derivative with D2 dopamine receptor agonist and D1 dopamine receptor antagonist activities. It is used most commonly as a prolactin inhibitor in cases of hyperprolactinemia, a growth hormone suppressant in acromegaly, and as an adjunctive medication to elodea in the management of Parkinson’s disease. The structure and activity of this drug are very similar to that of cabergoline. In the bodybuilding and athletic communities, bromocriptine is sometimes used to induce fat loss or combat elevated prolactin levels. The human medical data concerning the potential role this drug might play in supporting ongoing fat loss is encouraging. In cases where it was given while dieting, bromocriptine was capable of increasing total fat loss by a statistically significant degree, and seemed to extend the duration in which the diet was most effective. Bromocriptine has been used widely in clinical medicine for its indicated use since the 1970s. It is also much more widely distributed than its counterpart medication cabergoline, which is used for a similar set of clinical indications. In the U.S., the most common brand name for this drug Parlodel, which is sold by the pharmaceutical company Novartis.

Steroid users should be concerned about excessive prolactin levels because of the side effects associated with them. Prolactin is a naturally occurring hormone primarily produced by the lactotrophs located in the pituitary gland, with a minority amount of the hormone being produced by other tissues/cells of the body. Prolactin plays a major role in lactation in most mammals including humans. It both stimulates milk production as well as inducing lobuloalveolar growth of the mammary gland. Obviously both of these side effects would be of great concern to bodybuilders and strength athletes from both a health and cosmetic standpoint. Decreased sex drive, sperm production and sexual function may also be related to elevated levels of this hormone. The anabolic steroids that can lead to excessive levels of prolactin are primarily nandrolone and nandrolone-derived compounds. Steroids such as deca durabolin, trenbolone, and durabolin all can have this effect. For this reason users of these drugs may want to have a compound such as bromocriptine mesylate in their possession to treat negative side effects related to prolactin if they should develop at any point during a steroid cycle. Bromocriptine mesylate helps to reduce prolactin levels in humans by mimicking the actions of dopamine, thus it being a dopamine-receptor agonist. Dopamine inhibits the secretion and synthesis of prolactin by binding to the receptors in the lactotrophs, thereby negating the possible action of them to secrete prolactin itself. Therefore bromocriptine mesylate can bind to these receptors in the lactotrophs just as dopamine can. This action of course should prevent any abnormal prolactin levels from occurring in steroid users as they relate to any use of nandrolone or nandrolone-derived steroids. A secondary factor in controlling the levels of prolactin in users of anabolic steroids is the amount of circulating estrogen in their systems. Estrogen has an apparent positive effect on the amount of prolactin produced, with the more estrogen that is produced being related to the amount of prolactin that is produced accordingly. For this reason often times prolactin can be controlled by way of the reduction of estrogen levels. Use of aromatase inhibitors can be used for this purpose. However when prolactin levels reach a point where a reduction of estrogen levels does not inhibit excessive prolactin secretion, administration of bromocriptine mesylate should be sufficient to inhibit any further overproduction.

Athletes and bodybuilders looking to use this drug for weight loss usually take the drug at a dosage of 2.5-5mg per day for cycles of 4-6 weeks.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:39 PM.
   
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Cialis (tadalifil citrate)
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Cialis (tadalifil citrate) - 11-03-2011, 09:04 AM



Cialis is a drug used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men. The drug is FDA approved in the U.S. and is available from the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly. There are also several generic preparations available worldwide. This drug has became on the most popular drugs for erectile dysfunction today. For the purposes of steroid users the use of tadalafil citrate is rather limited beyond that of a “recreational” purpose. One exception to this may be once a steroid user is coming off of anabolic-androgenic steroids and have suffered a significant reduction in their ability to perform sexually and/or their sex drive. The use of drugs such as tadalafil citrate can help to alleviate some of the difficulty many have during this period of time.

Type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors such as tadalafil citrate work by causing the smooth-muscles to relax in the cavernosal arteries. This in turn allows penile vasodilation and erection to occur in response to sexual stimuli. This response allows one to achieve and maintain an erection and will help with doing so for a number of causes of the erectile dysfunction.
The effects produced by type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors can include other benefits such as a reduction in blood pressure and exhibiting other cardioprotective properties. This reduction in blood pressure includes a lowering of arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic. Other heart protecting effects such as an improvement in atherosclerotic disease and endothelial function can also be observed with sustained use of the drug. These benefits, while having been proven under clinical settings, have not been put into practice in any substantive way by medical professionals on any large scale. Nearly all of the research and scientific study of the drug tadalafil citrate has been conducted using male subjects. A small number of studies however have been done with female users. For the most part these studies have indicated that for the purpose of sexual function there appears to be a benefit that females could render from the use of tadalafil citrate; at this time however not enough research has been completed to be able to make recommendations about the safe and effective use of tadalafil citrate for females. For the most part tadalafil citrate is well tolerated by the vast majority of users, but some risks do exist. The most commonly referred to side effect is long lasting erections requiring medical intervention. These are relatively rare and are almost never seen when a user is using the correct dosage of the drug. But if such a condition does arise the user should seek medical attention as significant physical harm can come to the user if they allow the symptom to persist for a lengthy period of time. A more dramatic and concerning negative side effect that has more recently been publicized to a great extent is visual impairment linked to the use of type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors such as tadalafil citrate. This visual impairment is caused when blood flow to the optic nerve is disrupted; a condition known as nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy.

For most users, doses ranging between ten to forty milligrams should be sufficient to achieve the desired results, but as always users may use larger doses depending on their tolerance for the drug and/or their specific needs. The active life of tadalfail citrate is thirty-six to forty-eight hours; this long active life of course being one of the benefits of the drug and a half-life of approximately seventeen and one half hours, therefore one dose should be adequate for three or four days unless the user believes that the initial dosage that was administered was not enough to produce the expected results. This means that at most two or three doses per week would be the absolute maximum that a user would need to administer. The majority of the commercially available forms of tadalafil citrate is produced and marketed as either tablets or capsules. Some underground and non-pharmaceutical company producers however also produce liquid products containing the drug. All of these products are ingested orally.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:40 PM.
   
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Clenbuterol
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Clenbuterol - 11-03-2011, 09:04 AM



Clenbuterol is an anti asthma medication that belongs to a broad group of drugs known as sympathomimetics. These drugs affect that sympathetic nervous system in a wide number of ways, largely mediated by the distribution of adrenoceptors. There are actually nine different types of these receptors in the body, which are classified as either alpha or beta and further subcategorized by type number of ways, largely mediated by the distribution of adrenoceptors. Clenbuterol has been available as a bronchodilator for decades and is widely used in many parts of the world. Although it has a good safety record and approval in a wide number of other countries, this compound has never been made available for human use in the United States. The fact that there are a number of similar effective asthma medications already approved by the FDA and available may have something to do with this.

In terms of the use of clenbuterol for strength athletes and bodybuilders, its function as a beta-2 agonist can help to increase lypolysis. This is accomplished via an increase in basal metabolic rate, as well as increased heat production in the mitochondria which serves to increase body temperature and therefore increasing thermogenesis. Addtionally, it has been shown that clenbuterol is able to directly stimulate fat cells and accelerate the breakdown of triglycerides, thus forming free fatty acids. All of this is accomplished while clenbuterol has a minimal effect on the user cardiovascularly. This, as stated previously, is due to the drug being a selective beta-2 agonist/antagonist and having a minimal impact on the beta-1 receptors. This should cause less negative side effects, at least cardiovascularly, for the user. A second benefit to the administration of clenbuterol for athletes is an increase in strength as well as a possible increase in muscle size/lean body mass. It has been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies that clenbuterol contributes to an increase in muscle mass, weight and protein content. The exact mechanism by which this takes place has still not been definitively identified but it can be concluded that it is far different then the response produced by anabolic steroids. Like other beta-2 agonists, clenbuterol has also been shown to increase muscular strength. Again, these results were achieved in animal studies but there is little reason to believe would not be transferable to human users. These gains are made over time and not a result of any type of stimulatory effect of the drug. Again however, the exact mechanism by which these results are achieved with clenbuterol is not known. It is not the same as anabolic steroids but more research needs to be done before a full understanding of this mechanism is known. Clenbuterol does increase muscle protein synthesis so this is likely to contribute but is unlikely to be the only cause. Clenbuterol has an array of potential negative side effects that are indicated in the available research, most of which has been performed using animals. The problem with this is the fact that animals have quite different beta-2 receptor reactions then humans in some cases as well as having a larger quantity of these receptors in the relevant tissues. This obviously could lead to differing reactions in humans then those found in various animals. However due to the lack of research available conducted with human subjects, we are left to decipher the applicability of the animal research that has been conducted. The most commonly reported side effects associated with clenbuterol are tremors, increased heart rate, increased sweating, restlessness, headaches, and loss of appetite. The only way to prevent or reduce such symptoms from occurring is to either reduce the dosing being administered or ceasing to use the drug completely.

Athletes and bodybuilders taking clenbuterol to lose body fat usually take 1-3 40mcg pills per day with the dosage usually being split up. The receptors will eventually get used to the drug and some time should be taken off to allow them to down regulate. Because of this many choose to run a 2 week on and 2 week off schedule.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:41 PM.
   
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Cyclofenil
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Cyclofenil - 11-03-2011, 09:05 AM



Cyclofenil
Fertodur; (Cyclohexylidenemethanediyl)dibenzene-4,1-diyl diacetate; [4-[(4-Acetyloxyphenyl)-cyclohexylidenemethyl]phenyl] acetate
Molecular Formula C23H24O4
Molecular Weight 364.44
CAS Registry Number 2624-43-3
EINECS 220-089-1


Like Clomid and Nolvadex, Cyclofenil is used in post-cycle-therapy to increase testosterone and prevent gynocomastia. Unfortunately, Cyclfenil is not as effective and requires higher doses and more frequent injections as its two counterparts that are less expensive and more available.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:44 PM.
   
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Cytadren (Aminoglutethimide)
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Cytadren (Aminoglutethimide) - 11-03-2011, 09:05 AM



Aminoglutethimide
3-(4-Aminophenyl)-3-ethyl-2,6-Piperidinedione
Molecular Formula C13H16N2O2
Molecular Weight 232.28
CAS Registry Number 125-84-8
EINECS 204-756-4


Cytraden is able to almost completely suppress estrogen in the body, which is good news for athletes using steroids that convert into estrogen. It also has the ability to suppress the production of cortisol, a catabolic hormone that breaks down muscle tissue. Unfortunately, after a short period of use, the anti-cortisol effect backfires and the body produces extra cortisol and begins to eliminate the muscle gains made from a cycle.


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Cytomel (Liothyronine Sodium)
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Cytomel (Liothyronine Sodium) - 11-03-2011, 09:06 AM



Liothyronine sodium
3,3′,5-Triiodo-L-thyronine sodium salt; Sodium (2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoate
Molecular Formula C15H11I3NNaO4
Molecular Weight 672.95
CAS Registry Number 55-06-1
EINECS 200-223-5

Cytomel is a synthetic thyroidal hormone designed to increase the metabolic rate in the cells. On Cytomel, the cell’s mitochondria will take in more nutrients and burn them quicker. Bodybuilders use this compound to burn off fat and give them a more chiseled look. Although reports of natural thyroidal hormones shutting down from taking synthetics are often exaggerated, it is recommended that users take some time off from them to allow the body to go back to natural production for at least three to four months a year.

Cytomel® is the popularly recognized brand name for the drug liothyronine sodium. This is not an anabolic steroid but a thyroid hormone. It is used medically to treat cases of thyroid insufficiency, obesity, certain metabolic disorders and fatigue. Specifically this drug is a pharmaceutical preparation of the natural thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T-3). When administered, Cytomel increases the patient’s metabolism. The result is an increased rate of cellular activity (noted by a more rapid utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins). Bodybuilders are particularly attracted to this drug for its ability to burn off body excess fat. Most often utilized during contest preparation, one can greatly decrease the amount of stored fat without being forced to severely restrict calories. To this end Cytomel is commonly used in conjunction with Clenbuterol and can produce extremely dramatic results. This combination has become very popular in recent years, no doubt responsible for many “ripped” on-stage physiques. It is also noted by many that when thyroid hormones are taken in conjunction with steroids, an increased anabolic effect can be seen (noticeably greater than if the steroids are used alone). This is likely due to faster utilization of proteins by the body, increasing the rate for new muscle accumulation.

Caution should be taken if one is considering using this drug. Cytomel comes with an extensive list of warnings and precautions which are not to be ignored. Side effects include, but are not limited to, heart palpitations, agitation, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, sweating, nausea, headaches, and psychic/metabolic disorders. It is a powerful hormone, and one that could potentially alter the normal functioning of the body if misused. When taking Cytomel, one must remember to increase the dosage slowly. Generally one 25mcg tablet is taken on the first day, and the dosage is thereafter increased by one tablet every three of four days for a maximum dosage of 100mcg. This will help the body adjust to the increased thyroid hormone, hopefully avoiding any sudden “shock” to the system. The daily dose should also be split evenly throughout the day, in an effort to keep blood levels steadier. Women are more sensitive to the side effects of Cytomel than men, and usually choose not to take no more than 50mcg daily.

It is important to stress that a cycle should last no longer than 6 weeks and it should never be halted abruptly. As slowly as the dosage was built up it should also be lowered, one tablet every 3-4 days. Taking Cytomel for too long and/or at too high a dosage can result in a permanent thyroid deficiency. After doing such, one might need to be treated with a drug like Cytomel for life. It is also a good idea to first consult your physician and have your thyroid function tested. An undiagnosed hyperfunction would not mix well with the added hormone. An athlete should also be sure never to purchase an injectable form of the drug. It is generally an emergency room product, much too powerful for athletic use. Since T-3 is the most powerful thyroid hormone athletes are using, this is generally not the starting point for a beginner. Before using such a powerful item, it is a good idea to become familiar with a weaker substance. The highly popular Triacana is very mild, allowing the user much more latitude (from severe side effects) than Cytomel. An in-between point is Synthroid (synthetic T-4), still weaker in action than Cytomel. Once the user is ready however, the fat burning effect of this hormone can be extremely dramatic.


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 05:47 PM.
   
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DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol)
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DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) - 11-03-2011, 09:06 AM



2,4-Dinitrophenol
alpha-Dinitrophenol
Molecular Formula C6H4N2O5
Molecular Weight 184.11
CAS Registry Number 51-28-5
EINECS 200-087-7

Melting point 106-112 ºC
Water solubility 0.6 g/100 mL (18 ºC)

DNP is a Poison. DNP is a compound used by bodybuilders to trim fat off their bodies. It works by making the cells in the muscles work harder than normal to do any activity merely walking on DNP is more difficult than without taking the drug. What this means is that the body will search out more energy to power its tasks and its choice of supply while on DNP is fat. If this sounds too good to be true it is. DNP is dangerous enough to cause blindness and even death. Adding extra carbs to your diet, a multivitamin, an energy supplement, a thyroid drug such as T3 and possibly some taurine for cramping may help with some of the side effects of DNP, but even experienced steroid users recommend only taking small doses only a couple times a week and for only a 20 day cycle maximum.


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Dostinex (Cabergoline)
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Dostinex (Cabergoline) - 11-03-2011, 09:06 AM



Cabergoline is a selective dopamine receptor agonist. This agent is highly specific in its actions, with a strong affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor, and a low affinity for dopamine D1, A1-adrenergic, A2-adrenergic, 5-HT1-serotonin, and 5-HT2-serotonin receptors. Its main clinical use is for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, or the hyper secretion of prolactin from lacto tropes in the anterior pituitary. It is also used in the management of Parkinson’s disease. This drug effectively inhibits prolactin secretion by mimicking the actions of dopamine on the D2 receptor. Cabergoline was developed during the 1980s. The most popular brand name for the drug is Dostinex, which is produced in the United States and many other countries around the world by the large pharmaceutical company Pharmacia. This company did have exclusive rights to the sale of the drug until 2005 when the FDA began approving several generic brands of the drug for use. The Dostinex brand still ***inates the global market. Cabergoline is most commonly found in tablets of 500mcg each.

steroid users should be concerned about excessive prolactin levels because of the side effects associated with them. Prolactin is a naturally occurring hormone primarily produced by the lactotrophs located in the pituitary gland, with a minority amount of the hormone being produced by other tissues/cells of the body. Prolactin plays a major role in lactation in most mammals including humans. It both stimulates milk production as well as inducing lobuloalveolar growth of the mammary gland. Obviously both of these side effects would be of great concern to bodybuilders and strength athletes from both a health and cosmetic standpoint. Decreased sex drive, sperm production and sexual function may also be related to elevated levels of this hormone. In fact even in men with regular healthy levels of prolactin cabergoline can help to temporarily reduce the amount of the hormone that is secreted which leads to such advantages as an increase sex drive, improvement in sexual function (quality of erection) as well as reducing the refractory period for users (the amount of time between erections). Cabergoline works to inhibit secretion of prolactin because it is a dopamine receptor agonist. This means that it acts upon dopamine receptors in the same way as dopamine does in the body. Dopamine acts as a prolactin inhibitor by binding to receptors in the lactotrophs in the pituitary gland and signals for these to cease the synthesis and secretion of prolactin. While dopamine exhibits an ability to inhibit the secretion of prolactin it of course has numerous other functions in the body, with cabergoline being able to mimic the action of dopamine and also performing many of these. These functions include creating a sense of wellbeing or contentment via a chemical reaction in the body, most often released during pleasurable or satisfying physical actions. It has even been shown that dopamine-receptor agonists such as cabergoline can help increase the likelihood that individuals that are quitting smoking be successful. Dopamine can also help improve brain function. For this reason cabergoline is sometimes prescribed to sufferers of Parkinson’s disease. For the average user however it may help in improving memory or even motor functions, although if normal dopamine levels are already being produced by the user this effect will likely be minimal at best. However the primary reason for use of cabergoline by steroid users remains for the treatment of prolactin related side effects.

When used by athletes and bodybuilders to prevent certain side effects from the use of steroids, users usually start off with a dosage of 250mc twice per week. After 4-5 weeks the user may choose to up the dosage to 1mg per week (2 full tablets usually).


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Ephedra - Ma Huang
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Ephedra - Ma Huang - 11-03-2011, 09:07 AM



EPHEDRACEAE, Ephedra Family

Ma huang (Ephedra sinica) is a cone-bearing shrub, 30 to 50 cm in height, which is native to China but now found also in the Mediterranean region, India, Persia, and the western portion of South America. This species grows best in sandy or rocky deserts and mountains. Warm temperate latitudes with less than 20 cm of annual rainfall are suitable for the growth of ma huang, i.e., ma huang is a xerophytic plant capable of growing under semiarid to arid conditions.

The jointed green stems of ma huang are the chief photosynthetic organs of the plant. The plant has tiny, scale-like, opposite leaves that only function briefly when first formed, after which they lose their chlorophyll and turn a faded brown. The stems are tough, relatively flexible, and lack bark for several years.

We know that ephedras have been used at least for 5000 years in China, probably elsewhere. Beverage made with the ephedra plant have been referred to under many names, e.g., yellow river, mormon tea, and whorehouse tea. Ancient Chinese physicians prescribed ephedra tea and pills for the common cold, coughs, asthma, headaches, and hay fever. Ephedra comforts asthma patients by acting as a bronchial dilator. Honey is often added to the ephedra.

Ten species of Ephedra are known to exist in North America, and many were popular in folk medicine and as a daily beverage. After the Mormons had arrived in Utah, the native tribe introduced them to a species of Ephedra, and they used the stems as a substitute for coffee and tea. However, this was considered to be a bitter-tasting tonic beverage. In the Old West, the same species used by the Mormons gained a reputation as a cure for syphilis and gonorrhea, although this cure was never actually proven to work.

The stimulants, or uppers, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, are the two widely used alkaloids of ma huang. These alkaloids are found in highest concentrations in internodes, and in thin stems with fewer nodes (i.e., long internodes), especially less fibrous stems that snap most easily, and they are absent from roots. All the alkaloids are less potent than adrenaline, yet more effective than caffeine. Caffeine–contained in coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, yerba mate, and cola drinks–when combined with ma huang enhances the performance of ma huang, and the results are insomnia, irritability, and nervousness.

Seeds for ma huang are planted in the early spring. During the first year of growth, the plants must be watered and kept entirely weed free. Stems are harvested usually after four years of plant growth, and during the blooming season, when alkaloid content is the highest. Ephedra sinica is not harvested during the summer months, because alkaloid content is reduced when stems are fully hydrated from summer rains.

Stems less than 1.25 cm in diameter are cut, dried in the sun for 15 days, and then artificially dried at 120 degrees F for three more hours. Afterwards, the stems are beaten with sticks to break their great jointing, and then screened to separate unwanted joints from the internodes. Packed in bags or covered in containers, the stems must be stored in a dry atmosphere awaiting shipment.

Ephedrine can be obtained in nonprescription forms. A 24-25 mg capsule containing ma huang comes in a hydrochloride or sulfate salt form. Typically, only 5 mg of ephedrine is contained within this capsule, but ephedrine alkaloid content is not regulated due to its difficulty in being measured as a constant amount. Extreme variability in ephedrine content is associated with different ephedrine species and their places of origin.

Many herbalists agree that the intact ma huang stem is much safer to use for medicinal purposes than its alkaloid extracts. As an example, pure ephedrine raises blood pressure, whereas ephedra stems reduces it. Comparing the alkaloid pseudoephedrine with the entire plant, the entire plant causes fewer heart symptoms. When comparing alkaloid to alkaloid for commercial cold preparations, pseudoephedrine is less risky than ephedrine.

Ma huang and its alkaloids have various medicinal uses, of which only some of the more widely used purposes will be mentioned here, but especially ma huang acts as a bronchial dilator to dry up the sinuses. Pseudoephedrine HCL, an isomer of ephedrine, is claimed to have a longer bronchial dilating effect than ephedrine. This use is especially helpful in treating hay fever, allergies, and asthma. Bronchial dilation also aids in decongesting the chest from the cold and flu. Synthetic ephedrine compounds are widely used in cold and allergy remedies, such as Sudafed.

Ma huang stimulates the nervous system to enhance mood, reduce fatigue, and to make a person alert enough to smell their coffee in the morning. Ma huang also has the ability to increase energy and endurance; it does this through increase of blood flow to the muscles, resulting in an increase of oxygen and nutrient supply to the muscles. Ephedrine also increases basal metabolic rate (BMR), so that the body is spurred to burn calories faster, and so ephedrine is part of the thermogenic process that can result in substantial weight loss. In thermogenesis, white fat stores are mobilized into the bloodstream, where they are carried to the brown fat to be burned up and dissipated as heat.

Administering ma huang causes uterine contractions, thus, menstruation can be initiated. However, during pregnancy, women are not advised to try ma huang. Ma huang can help smokers to quit smoking by decreasing cigarette cravings.

Because it has some effects like adrenaline, some athletics have been known to take ephedra products to enhance physical performance. One recent rumor claimed that downing many Sudafed tablets is a common practice for professional hockey players. Diego Maradona of the Argentina World Cup soccer team tested positive for ephedrine and was removed from competition by the Argentina Football Association, and ephedra is now on the United States Olympic Committee’s list of banned substances.

Finally, ma huang and its alkaloids are marketed to produce euphoria and to increase sexual sensations, and for that reason, ma huang poses a large risk of addiction in adolescence.

The wide range of products that can be formed from ma huang make the plant and its alkaloids very marketable, and extracts of the alkaloids have been used in modern over-the-counter drugs since the 1920s. As just mentioned, ma huang is used to increase sexual sensation and to bring the user to a state of euphoria, and the plant is portrayed as a natural alternative to the street drugs “ecstasy” and “escalation.” Combination products of multiple stimulants are also quite marketable. The kola nut caffeine and green tea extract are used in combination with ephedra to produce multiple stimulants.

As with a lot of other marketable stimulants, adverse side effects are not uncommon. The alkaloids of ma huang can cause rapid or irregular heartbeat, very similar to the effects of adrenaline. Blood pressure rises. Unfortunately, there have been reported cases of liver injury and hepatitis, and users experience aggressiveness, anxiety, and tremors. This leads to poor judgment, and thus potential injuries. Complications from these side effects can result in cerebral hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and, of course, death. Prolonged use of the drug, which is not recommended, can be the cause of weakened adrenal glands, nervousness, and insomnia. Other side effects include nausea, vomiting, fever, depression, seizures, and headaches. It should be noted, however, that the low dosage of ephedrine in many ma huang products is not large enough to produce significant cardiovascular changes in everyone.

The United States Food and Drug Administration has described ephedra as an herb of “undefined safety.” But because ephedra plants are considered nutritional supplements, products containing ma huang are not regulated for safety. Repeating from above, alkaloid content varies so greatly from plant to plant and for different ephedra species that it is very difficult to monitor the safety level of each batch. Probably as a result of no monitoring and poor warnings, at least fifteen fatalities have been linked to food products with ephedrine.

In 1993, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were put on the list of the official regulated chemicals for the state of California. One major reason for this regulation was to help identify illicit drug labs by monitoring quantities and destinations of precursor chemicals. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are used as starting compounds, or “substitute precursors,” in the illicit manufacturing of methamphetamines. Only 50% of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are lost during methamphetamine synthesis; compared with other chemicals used in drug labs for the synthesis of methamphetamine, 50% is a low amount to be lost. The Controlled Substances Act states that all sales of single entity ephedrine products are liable for full record keeping and reporting requirements under the act. If the act is not kept, a person, or a group of people, may be fined $25,000 per violation, including up to ten years in prison.

Many people have the predisposition to believe that because a product is “natural” and available without a prescription that it is healthful and not harmful to the human body. Perhaps an extension of that reasoning, when victims are delivered to hospitals for liver injury, cerebral hemorrhage, and cardiac arrest, many will not reveal their use of such “natural” medicines unless prompted. It is important to remember that anything thought by the government as being of “undefined safety”–whether it has been in use for medicinal purposes for 5000 years or for five years–should always be researched extensively before it is put into your body.


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Ephedrine Hydrochloriade
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Ephedrine Hydrochloriade - 11-03-2011, 09:07 AM



DL-Ephedrine hydrochloride

(R*,S*)-(+/-)-alpha-[1-(Methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcohol hydrochloride
Molecular Formula C10H15NO.HCl
Molecular Weight 201.69
CAS Registry Number 134-71-4
EINECS 205-153-9
Melting point 188-190 ºC


As one of the building blocks for the illegal street drug methamphetamine, ephedrine has had its fair share of public relations woes. On its own, however, ephedrine is a mild stimulant similar to caffeine. Its purpose in bodybuilding and training for athletics is to help burn off unwanted body fat. It is also helpful in increasing the strength of skeletal muscle. Side effects of ephedrine use resemble those of Clenbuterol or stimulants like caffeine – insomnia, restlessness, loss of appetite, etc.

Ephedrine is a stimulant drug, belonging to a group of medicines known as sympathomimetics. Specifically it is both an alpha and beta adrenergenic agonist (you may remember Clenbuterol is a selective beta-2 agonist). In addition, ephedrine enhances the release of norepinephrine, a strong endogenous alpha agonist. The action of this compound is notably similar to that of the body’s primary adrenergic hormone epinephrine (adrenaline), which also exhibits action toward both alpha and beta receptors. When administered, ephedrine will notably increase the activity of the central nervous system, as well as have a stimulatory effect on other target cells. This will produce a number of effects beneficial to the athlete. For starters, the user’s body temperature should rise slightly as more free fatty acids are produced from the breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue (stimulating the metabolism). This should help the user shed subcutaneous body fat stores, enhancing the look of definition in the physique. The anabolic effectiveness of steroids may also be increased with this substance (mildly), as the metabolic rate is a measure of fat, protein and carbohydrate conversion by the body. An enhanced metabolic state could clearly hasten the deposit of new muscle mass.

This stimulant effect of this drug will also increase the force of skeletal muscle contractions. For this reason ephedrine is commonly used by powerlifters before a competition, as the resultant (slight) strength and energy increase can clearly improve the weight totals on major lifts. It may also provide a notable mental edge, as the user is more energetic and better able to concentrate on the tasks ahead. Many recreational weight lifters find this effect particularly welcome, and use 25-50mg of this stimulant as a regular adjunct to their training sessions. The user often feels capable of attacking the weights with much more intensity while taking ephedrine, and leaves the gym knowing they will have had a more productive workout. It is important that this compound not be used continuously for this purpose, as its effect will diminish as the body becomes accustomed to the drug. In most instances the user will take the drug only two or three times per week, usually on those days personally “important” (like chest day). The athlete is also wise to take a break (one to two months) from ephedrine treatment after several weeks have past, so as to continue receiving the optimal effect from this drug. While the strength boosting effect of this drug is noteworthy, the primary application for ephedrine remains to be as a cutting agent. The athlete will generally take this drug a few times daily during dieting phases of training, at a dosage of 25 to 50mg per application. The widely touted stack of ephedrine (25-50mg), caffeine (200mg) and aspirin (300mg) is shown to be extremely potent for fat loss. In this combination, the ephedrine and caffeine both act as notable thermogenic stimulants. The added aspirin also helps to inhibit lipogenesis by blocking the incorporation of acetate into fatty acids. The athlete will be sure this stack is working by noticing an increase in body temperature, usually a degree or so (not an uncomfortable raise). This combination is taken two to three times daily, for a number of consecutive weeks. It is discontinued once the user’s body temperature drops back to normal, a clear sign these drugs are no longer working as desired. At this point increasing the dosages would not prove very efficient. Instead a break of several weeks should be taken, so that this stack may once again work at an optimal level.

Ephedrine can produce a number of unwelcome side effects that the user should be aware of. For starters, the stimulant effect can produce shaky hands, tremors, sweating, rapid heartbeat, dizziness and feelings of inner unrest. Often these effects subside as the user becomes more accustomed to the effect of this drug, or perhaps the dosage is lowered. In general, those negatively impacted by caffeine would probably not like the stronger effects of ephedrine. The mental and physical state produced by this drug is also quite similar to that seen with Clenbuterol, so those who find little discomfort with this treatment should (presumably) be fine with this item (and vice versa). While taking this drug one may also endure a notable loss of appetite, usually a welcome effect when dieting. Ephedrine is in fact a popular ingredient in combination (prescription) appetite suppressants. The user may further notice headaches and an increase in blood pressure with regular use of ephedrine. Those suffering from thyroid dysfunctions, high blood pressure or cardiac irregularities should also not be taking this drug, as it will certainly not mix well with such conditions.

As of late there is much discussion about the future availability of ephedrine. This is due to that fact that ephedrine tablets are used as the primary base for the manufacture of methamphetamine. This is you know is an illegal drug, made and sold illicitly. The structure of these two compounds is notably similar, as only a few chemicals are needed to change ephedrine into “meth”. Since ephedrine is currently an over-the-counter product, underground manufacturers can easily obtain it. A trend involving large volume retail purchases for OTC ephedrine products has been developing, and many states are taking notice of it. With the widespread increase of amphetamine addiction (and related crime) ephedrine may soon join the list of federally controlled substances. While some states have already taken action to restrict the sale of this stimulant, federal action would probably be required in order have a major impact on availability. Even if a particular state is aggressively preventing the sale of these products, a thriving mail-order market still exists to fill the demand. Thumbing through the back pages of many national magazines should make this clear, as we notice advertisements for companies which ship ephedrine tablets out by the thousand.


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EPO (Erythropoietin)
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EPO (Erythropoietin) - 11-03-2011, 09:08 AM



Erythropoietin is a type of protein that is produced in the kidneys, and is responsible for stimulating red blood cell production. Epoetin alfa is the pharmaceutical form of erythropoietin, which was manufactured using recombinant DNA technology. The compound is produced from animal cells into which the gene coding for human erythropoietin has been inserted. The biological activity and structure of epoetin alfa are indistinguishable from that of human erythropoietin. This drug is used to treat many forms of anemia, effectively stimulating and maintaining erythropoietin in a large percentage of patients treated. EPO was developed by the biotechnologies firm Amgen, and was first intrduced to the U.S. market in 1984. The release of the drug was looked upon as a breakthrough in the treatment of anemia, which beforehand was being addressed mainly with agents that indirectly or nonspecifically targeted red cell production, such as oxymetholone, which may present a number of unwanted side effects to the patient.

As for its use in athletics, epoietin alpha offers endurance athletes an effective means by which they are able to elevate their red blood cell production and concentration in a relatively convenient and efficient manner. Prior to the development of synthetic erythropoietin many endurance athletes relied on a procedure often referred to as “blood doping”. This simply referred to the action of removing and then storing a quantity of blood from an individual, and then transfusing that same blood back into the individual prior to an athletic event. This procedure results in a greater number of circulating red blood cells for the individual due to the fact that the body will reproduce the volume of blood initially removed, and then the blood that was removed along with the requisite red blood cells are added back. Epoietin alpha offers these same advantages without the need for the transfusion and storing of the blood of the individual. Obviously administering epoietin alpha is by far a more efficient and convenient method for achieving these results. The reason that an increase in red blood cell count is so advantageous for endurance athletes is that red blood cells are responsible for delivering oxygen to muscle tissues. By having more of them available to fulfill this role, the blood of an athlete is far more efficient at delivering oxygen to muscles resulting in improvement in the endurance, strength and speed of an athlete. Therefore the use of epoietin alpha obviously helps an athlete in improving their various athletic responses, including oxygen uptake, exercise capacity and energy efficiency. For this reason, it should apparent why endurance athletes find this compound so beneficial.

Epoietin alpha can be administered using either intravenous or subcutaneous injections. The difference between the two methods is, not surprisingly, the rate at which the blood level of the compound peaks. When epoietin alpha is injected subcutaneously, blood levels of the compound will peak approximately twelve to eighteen hours after administration. Intravenous injections will peak rapidly after administration, due to the immediate entry of the drug into the blood stream. The half life of the drug is also greatly affected by the injection method used, with intravenous injections netting a half life of about four to five hours. As for the dosing that is required to see results, medically the usual protocol is usually to prescribed roughly 15-60ius per kilogram of bodyweight three to four times per week for the patient. At these levels, an athlete looking for performance enhancement should see improvement. However, anecdotally many athletes have reported simply using 1000ius per day for the weeks running up to a competition.


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Esiclene (Formebolone)
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Esiclene (Formebolone) - 11-03-2011, 09:13 AM



Esiclene is not known for its results. It doesn’t have any strong anabolic or androgenic effect, which makes muscle building out of the question as a use for the drug. So what does it do? Bodybuilders use Esiclene to pump up specific muscles before a competition because injecting it directly into a muscle will cause that muscle to swell. The effect only lasts a few days and the injection is irritating, even painful, so its use is not highly recommended.


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Finasteride (Proscar)
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Finasteride (Proscar) - 05-28-2012, 06:09 PM



Finasteride is an inhibtor of 5a-reductase, which is the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone into DHT, thereby minimizing the unwanted androgenic effects that result from its presence. The effect of this drug is very fast acting, and suppresses DHT levels by as much as 65% within a 24 hour period of taking a single 1mg tablet. Medically, this drug is used to treat benign prostate enlargement and male pattern hair loss. It is also being investigated for the treatment of hair and facial growth on the face and body of women. Male athletes and bodybuilders are interested in ministered for tis ability to reduce the androgenic side effects associated with the use of testosterone and certain derivatives. The first release of this drug in the United States was under the brand name of Proscar and was produced by the pharmaceutical company Merck and approved by the FDA in 1992. It was specifically given approval for use by patients with benign prostate enlargement.

In terms of the use of finasteride for steroid users, it would be related to the easing of several androgenic side effects often associated with the use of some anabolic and androgenic steroids. Of course due to the originally intended medical purpose of the drug steroid users suffering from prostate conditions due to their anabolic steroid use could be well served to use a drug such as finasteride. This will likely ease some of the discomfort caused by the activity of the DHT in the prostate tissue and related conditions. Similarly the androgenic activity of DHT in the scalp leading to hair loss can also prevented in some males with the use of a reductase inhibitor like finasteride. If the hair loss experienced by the user is related to an increase in the concentration and/or level of DHT in the tissue the administration of finasteride can help to reduce or prevent the severity of this side effect. A third side effect that the drug may help with is oily skin and/or acne. This androgenic side effect may be prevented or at the very least reduced in severity with the administration of finasteride. However, anecdotally the results of this have been mixed to say the least and relatively few users administer the drug for this purpose. For many these actions of finasteride will seem very similar to that of another reductase inhibitor, namely dutasteride. However these drugs do have differences. The major difference between them is that dutasteride targets both Type I and Type II 5-alpha reductase. Finasteride only targets Type II. Type I is more heavily concentrated in the liver and skin while Type II is found most prevalently in male reproductive organs. By targeting both types of the enzyme, dutasteride is better capable of reducing more DHT then finasteride and is therefore thought to be more efficient and effective by most. Despite this, it is still not as popular as finasteride but this is likely due to dutasteride having been on the market for a much shorter time as well as not currently being approved medically for use as a preventative measure against male pattern baldness. Finasteride has also been used as a so-called “masking agent” by some steroid users who are tested either via urine or blood. While the mechanism by which this is accomplished will not be discussed in this profile, it should however be noted that most organizations now recognize this fact and will test for finasteride along with anabolic steroids. For this reason users of finasteride who may be tested for such substances should be aware of this fact beforehand.

Bodybuilders looking to use this drug to prevent hair loss from excess DHT and other issues will usually take the drug in a dosage of 1mg per day for as long as the cycle of anabolic/androgenic steroids last.


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HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
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HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) - 05-28-2012, 06:13 PM



HCG is a prescription medication containing chorionic gonadotropin obtained from a natural origin. Chorionic gonadotropin is a polypeptide hormone normally found in the female body during the early months og pregnancy. Chorionic gonadotropin is present in a significant amounts only during pregnancy and used as an indicator of pregnancy by standard over the counter pregnancy test kits. HCG was first discovered in 1920, and was identified as a pregnancy hormone approximately 8 years later. The first drug preparation containing chorionic gonadotropin came in the form of an animal pituitary extract, which was developed as a commercial product by the pharmaceutical company Organon. Organon introduced the extract in 1931, under the brand name of Pregnon. Atrademark dispute forced the company to change the name to Pregnyl, however, which reached market in 1932. Pregnyl is still sold by Organon to this day, although it no longer comes in the form of a pituitary extract. Manufacturing techniques were introduced in 1940 that allowed the hormone to be obtained by filtering and purifying the urine of pregnant women. Today the drug is widely available from different companies in countries all over the world.

For male steroid users, HCG can mimic the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the body. Luteinizing hormone is a pituitary hormone that is released and signals the manufacture of testosterone in the testicles. It is this ability that enables the compound to help restore the normal function of the testes to respond to endogenous luteinizing hormone. This ability can be dramatically reduced after a long period of inactivity, as is the case when administering anabolic steroids. Even when the release of endogenous LH has been resumed to it's normal levels, testosterone levels may not return to normal because of the extended time of inaction that the testes were exposed to. Individuals will also often use HCG to combat testicular atrophy, a result of the hypothalamus pituitary testes axis shut down. While this atrophy is more of a symptom of a side effect of anabolic steroid use rather than something that can be dangerous to a user, many individuals are concerned about testicular atrophy and turn to human chorionic gonadotropin to help and alleviate it. For this purpose, HCG is quite effective. As is fairly obvious by the preceding, human chorionic gonadotropin offers female athletes no performance enhancing qualities and is useless for this purpose. The primary risk associated with human chorionic gonadotropin is causing testicular desensitization and damage to the Leydig cells of the testes resulting in permanent impairment to natural testosterone production. It is the aromatase activity that occurs with HCG that some feel is actually toxic to the Leydig cells of the testes. If this sceanrio plays out an individual would be causing permanent damage to their natural testosterone production (hypogonadism). This is why relatively small doses of the compound should be administered at a time. If large doses are taken it is likely that some damage may occur.

First, more frequent dosing is nearly always better to use rather than increasing the dose size. Due to the fact that HCG aromatizes and it is believed that it may be the estrogen, along with other factors, that may cause testicular desensitization large doses would only cause more problems for a user. However, smaller more frequent doses should enable an individual to use a substantial dose of the drug spread out over several days while minimizing the risk of damage. Anecdotally users report administering the compound from twice per week to every other day, with some even choosing to inject everyday at very small doses. In terms of frequency of injections users often find that it is determined by the length of time that they are planning on running the compound which influences their decision about dosing length. For example, some individuals will begin administering HCG during the last few weeks of their cycle prior to beginning their post-cycle therapy (PCT).

Calculating HCG :

There isn't a specific ratio of cc/ml to IU. It depends on how you mix it. It's quite simple. If you dillute 5,000 IUs HCG with 5ml (cc) solvent, the end result is 1,000 IUs per ml (cc). Divide the same 5,000 IUs with 10 ml (cc) and the end result is 500 IUs per ml (cc). Therefore, a large part depends on the concentration of HCG per ampoule or vial.

Mixing HCG :

1) Open hcg /amp with powder
2) Use a syringe to pull out 1cc of BacWater and put in amp with HCG
3) It will instantly dissolve
4) Then Use an empty 5ml vial (sterile and sealed) put 4ml of Bacwater in the vial
5) Take syringe and ad the mixed HCG solution to the 5ml vial
6) Shake it and you have 5000IU's of HCG
7) Than draw 1cc and inject
8) put the rest in the refrigerator

•The reason your discarding the amp of solvent cause its made for 1 times use and you wouldn’t be able to refrigerate it and use it a week later again. That’s why you need Bac H2o.
•The most common side affect associated with HCG is gynecomastia . The concurrent intake of Nolvadex with HCG prevents gynecomastia , prevents/minimizes leydig cell desensitization and contiues the stimulation of pituitary LH once HCG has been discontinued.
•HCG will last approximately 30 days if mixed with Bac h2o instead of the solvent it comes with.
•You can keep the mixed hcg in vial or pins In the fridge till use


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Last edited by K1; 05-28-2012 at 06:17 PM.
   
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Lasix® (Furosemide)
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Lasix® (Furosemide) - 05-28-2012, 06:23 PM



Active Life: 6-8 hours (Diuretic effects)
Drug Class: Loop Diuretic (Oral)
Average Dose: 40-80 mg total in a 12 hour period
Acne: No
Water Retention: Obviously not
High Blood Pressure: No
Liver Toxic: Unknown
Aromatization: Not applicable

Lasix is a brand name for the drug furosemide, a very potent diuretic. Technically it belongs to a class of drugs known as loop diuretics, which will cause the body to excrete water as well as potassium, sodium and chloride. Loop diuretics are among the strongest such drugs available, having an extremely dramatic effect on fluid levels in the body. Potassium levels need to be particularly watched, Lasix greatly increasing the amount excreted. The use of a prescription potassium supplement therefore is often required to keep levels in balance, otherwise a serious heart complications might develop. Mistakes in potassium dosage have equally serious consequences, so Lasix is clearly a risky item to use. But when an athlete needs to shed water, it is very difficult to find something that works better.

Athletes use diuretics for a couple of specific purposes. Competitive athletes use these drugs to drop water weight, in an effort to make adjustments in their weight class standings. Since the weigh-in is most often a day or days before a competition/match, one can drop their bodyweight considerably and be back to normal within hours after rehydration. This logically seems to provide an unfair advantage, the athlete competing at a much heavier weight than believed. This advantage is only offset by the now near universal nature of this practice. Bodybuilders also rely heavily on diuretics when preparing for a contest. It can efficiently lower subcutaneous water concentrations, helping to produce that super-ripped look so common on stage today. Make no mistake; a winning look is extremely difficult to obtain without some form of diuretic.

This drug is prepared as both an oral tablet (usually 20-40mg per tablet) or IM/IV injection solution, the injection being much more rapid in effect. The dosage and method of administration is tailored to the individual, dependent on the desired goals and condition of the athlete. Tablets are the most common form of administration. Each oral Lasix tablet becomes effective about 1 hour after ingesting and will remain active for an additional 3 or 4 hours. The athlete will usually start with a mild dose, and add to this amount accordingly later in the day. The initial dosage is usually 20 to 40mg, with the maximum amount usually not to exceed 80mg. The user will attempt to calculate the optimal dosage, and determine the best intake schedule in relation to the show or competition. In order to minimize the side effects associated with this drug, it is generally used for no longer than a few days.

Since Lasix has such a strong effect on electrolyte and potassium levels, it is much safer to addition a potassium sparing agent like Aldactone® (spironolactone) than it is to keep increasing the amount of Lasix used. A combination of 50mg Aldactone® and 20mg Lasix would be a good starting point, having roughly the effect of a 40mg Lasix tablet without the notable potassium loss. This dosage is repeated 2-3 times during the day and the effect judged to determine the optimal dosage. It is important to remember that these drugs can be active for many hours. It can become difficult to control the dehydrating effect with an overlapping schedule, so one should be careful not to administer such diuretics too frequently.

Lasix is no doubt one of the most dangerous drugs a competitor will use. This can be seen on occasion when severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance takes the life of an ambitious athlete. Warning signs that Lasix may be causing severe dehydration include (not limited to) dizziness, cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, fainting and circulatory disturbances. Potassium depletion can be marked as well, so as discussed users often opt to take a prescription potassium supplement, also with its own set of dangers. One should use extreme caution when considering using Lasix or other diuretics; they are certainly not needed for recreational users.

This product is widely available. It is manufactured and sold under many different brand names, in many countries. No version of Lasix (or any other diuretic) is currently being counterfeited. When found on the black market it can therefore be trusted. Although it is doubtful these will circulate, make sure never to purchase the 500mg tablets. These are used only in severe medical conditions, and contain a dosage that could prove fatal to a healthy person.


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Pituitary Growth Hormone (pGH)
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Pituitary Growth Hormone (pGH) - 05-28-2012, 06:24 PM



Pituitary Growth Hormone can produce amazing results in the areas of muscle growth and fat loss. Results from taking PGH will take a much longer time to manifest in the body than other compounds discussed in this forum, but most people who have experimented with PGH find the results to be amazing. In the world of medicine, doses of pGH are given to children of permanently short stature to help them grow taller. Although pGH may seem like a wonder-drug, it is important to remember that abuse is still unsafe and side effects are possible, especially in the liver.


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SARMs S4
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SARMs S4 - 05-28-2012, 06:27 PM



sarms And BRIDGING.

Is This The Perfect Drug To Use In-Between steroid Cycles?

sarms is the latest addition to the enhanced athletes arsenal and it’s creating a storm of controversy. It may very well be most significant advancement in muscle development since the invention of Dianabol back in 1956. A bold statement for sure. But sarms is truly an incredible compound with many applications, most significantly, as a viable anabolic enhancement to be used in-between steroid cycles.

sarms is not a steroid. It is the veritable “next step” beyond steroids. It’s a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, which essentially means it targets the androgen receptors in a way where they’re most beneficial while avoiding the nasty side effects that go along with traditional androgenic drugs.

Due to that elusive combination of good without the bad, sarms has been hailed as the “Holy Grail of Muscle Growth.” It’s what all athletes have been waiting and wishing for. Think of it as pizza without calories, alcohol without the hangover and safe sex without con***s. Is that possible? Yes it is. But there are limitations. (Damn!) But rest assured, they’re minor. There is a catch – there always is. But in the case of sarms, the catch isn’t that bad.

For one thing, sarms will not work like mega doses of steroids. You would not be able to take supraphysiological dosages in order to gain massive size on the order of a gram of testosterone. Its benefits work within a specific dosage range . In that regard, sarms is unique. A good comparison would be to aspirin, which will always lower a temperature from a fever, but no lower than 98.6. However, MORE aspirin will not improve the condition. There’s that “sweet spot” where it works its magic with virtually no risk. sarms is like that. In controlled dosages it’s a non toxic, non suppressive compound that works like steroids, but without the side effects. But beyond a certain dosage, it doesn’t work much better. It’s a sort of “built in safety net.” 50ml a day is an effective dosage with 100mls a day being the cut-off point to avoid any negative side effects.

The potential and the possibilities are as compelling as they are enticing, but one area where sarms is becoming increasingly popular is in the area of “bridging.”

A “bridge” is essentially a description of using any compound that will maintain the gains of the former cycle on through to the next cycle, months later. How to best do that has been a controversial topic for some time. In the past, bodybuilders have attempted to sustain the effects of a steroid cycle by using a milder , less suppressive steroid (such as Primobolin) in-between cycles. Another method of attempting a “bridge” was to use a short acting oral in the A.M so that it would not be active past a four hour window. In this way one may (theoretically) recover over-night, resulting in the body managing to restore its natural hormonal balance. Unfortunately, neither game plan was especially successful for even a low dose of any steroid will cause suppression and hinder recovery. But remember, sarms isn’t a steroid. It works on an entirely different principle – that of being “selective” to muscle. And at 50 mls a day it’s been shown to have no suppressive effects. (Unless dosing exceeds several months). This makes sarms the perfect choice to be used in-between cycles. You won’t make massive gains while on but you’ll hold onto your gains and still be in an “enhanced” state without fear of suppression. Not a bad deal.

It would make far more sense to “bridge” using sarms on its own, or with natural supplements in order for the body to maintain ultimate anabolism without suppression. As much as using a less suppressive steroid may seem to make sense, ANY steroid even in low dosages will suppress, delay recovery, and ultimately work against the process of recovering from a cycle. It will also minimize the results of the NEXT cycle since the receptors would not have had a chance to replenish. This is what makes sarms superior for this purpose.

Another similar method that’s becoming popular is to use sarms as a “mini-cycle” in-between steroid cycles. In other words, once you finish your course of steroids and do a proper PCT and settle into being “natural”, after a while you can use sarms daily for a 4 week run. In this way you can bump up gains, increase muscle density, improve lifts and burn fat – all without deregulating androgen receptors or compromising the HPTA. (Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis). Never before has this been possible.

A PCT following a sarms cycle may not be necessary. Some OTC supplements may be all you need to get back to baseline. sarms won’t aromatize so there’s no fear of developing gyno or other estrogen related conditions.

sarms has many uses and having an anabolic/androgenic advantages while off cycle may be the most significant of all.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

sarms And The New Post Cycle Therapy

sarms S-4 is a revolutionary advancement in the field of muscle development through anabolic enhancement. Simply put, sarms targets the androgen receptors in a “selective” manner (Hence the term Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators), zeroing in on the “good “ aspects while negating the bad(1). In this way, you get the benefits of enhanced androgenic effects – strength, increased muscle and heightened libido – without the negative side effects of traditional anabolic/androgenic steroids -- prostate enlargement(2), increased blood pressure, testicular atrophy, hair loss and elevated cholesterol(3)(4). And it does it all in an orally bio-available form that is not liver toxic. Sound interesting? It should. sarms is changing the landscape of bobybuilding in a big way. And for those who already use steroids as a part of the process, sarms has several interesting applications, most significantly, in the area of Post Cycle Therapy(5).

Part of this usage is another advantage that is especially appealing to those who use steroids on a regular basis. In controlled dosages, sarms is relatively non-suppressive. This opens up considerable possibilities in regard to utilizing sarms to enhance a typical steroid cycle, but more significantly, it becomes a tremendous tool in the area of PCT.

Coming off of steroids is the most complicated, and often confusing part of the process. The athlete wants to maintain gains, avoid the “crash” of reduced strength and muscle growth and yet, recover his natural hormonal balance. It’s a tricky balance of drugs, supplements and ultimately luck. Some fare better than others and many consider the down time inevitability. But with the advent of sarms S-4, not only can the transition be made more tolerable, it is now possible to avoid the down sides of coming off of a steroid cycle(6). One can maintain the gains and even continue growing after the cessation of steroids.

The most logical method of PCT use would be to implement sarms as a “taper” at the end of a cycle. In other words, once you stop using steroids, the body can obviously no longer support the muscle growth it achieved in an enhanced state. Natural testosterone is lower. And nitrogen retention is lessened. That’s where sarms fits the bill. By using sarms following the end of a cycle, the body can begin to recover yet still receive both the anabolic and androgen benefits. Muscles will still be able to absorb increased nitrogen from protein sources, thus increasing muscle tissue growth and the androgenic qualities will insure that strength is maintained(7). Recovery time will also be reduced. You can still work out hard without fear of overtraining and the increased workload will lead to further improvement. In short, this means no crash and no loss of gains. Essentially, you’re still “on” but you’re recovering. Sounds perfect, doesn’t it? Well, it’s not perfect, but it’s pretty damn close to it. Never before has anything like this been possible and the potential is amazing(8).

The only drawback of using sarms (if it even be considered a drawback) is the fact that its androgenic ratio is closer to a mild steroid such as Primobolin than it is to testosterone. So by itself, one could not and should not expect tremendous gains in mass from it. Increasing the dosage beyond 50-100 mls a day is not recommended since at that point the risk/benefit ratio shifts unfavorably – not that the side effects are severe, but that’s where continued use could lead to suppression, and then you’re defeating the purpose of using it for PCT(9)

Another steroid with which sarms can be compared is Proviron. The main similarity in regard to the physical result is a noticeable “hardness” and increased density to the muscles. Proviron is also only mildly suppressive and then, only in high dosages for extended duration, which is why it too is a popular add-on at the end of a cycle. Neither drug can aromatize and also work as an anti estrogen. (Another advantage in PCT). The main difference between Proviron and sarms is that Proviron is DHT based making it especially hard on the hairline and prostate -- NOT what you want when trying to restore sex drive and stamina. sarms has been shown to cause less prostate hypertrophy than all other steroids(10). In fact, in some studies sarms has been shown to decrease prostate weight similar to the 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, Finesteride(11). How perfect is that?

Higher dosages have also been shown to lead to vision disturbances (much like with Clomid). Still, at 50mg - 100mg a day the results are impressive and virtually side effect free. A good way to incorporate sarms into PCT is to begin using 50mls a day at the same time as you begin using other PCT ancillaries – depending on what drugs and supplements you prefer and/or found to be effective. You then can continue using sarms and supplements which will allow the HPTA to begin functioning on its own without the help of other drugs such as HCG or Clomid(12). The added benefit would be continued strength and libido and an increased muscularity. Instead of being a time when you experience the loss of gains, it will become a time when the gains become solidified and you can look better than ever(13).

It won’t be long before the term PCT and sarms are inexorably linked. The way PCT is conducted will be changed forever. In fact, it already is.

REFERENCES:
Drug Discov Today. 2007 Mar;12(5-6):241-8. Epub 2007 Feb 7.
Expanding the therapeutic use of androgens via selective androgen receptor modulators (sarms).
Gao W, Dalton JT.
Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Apr;15(4):377-87.
Therapeutic potential of the sarms: revisiting the androgen receptor for drug discovery.
Segal S, Narayanan R, Dalton JT.
1GTx, Inc., Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Oct;7(10):873-81.
Selective androgen receptor modulators: in pursuit of tissue-selective androgens.
Omwancha J, Brown TR.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Division of Reproductive Biology, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec 25;284(52):36367-76. Epub 2009 Oct 21.
Identification of anabolic selective androgen receptor modulators with reduced activities in reproductive tissues and sebaceous glands.
Schmidt A, Harada S, Kimmel DB, Bai C, Chen F, Rutledge SJ, Vogel RL, Scafonas A, Gentile MA, Nantermet PV, McElwee-Witmer S, Pennypacker B, Masarachia P, Sahoo SP, Kim Y, Meissner RS, Hartman GD, Duggan ME, Rodan GA, Towler DA, Ray WJ.
Department of Molecular Endocrinology/Bone Biology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 1948, USA
Nucl Recept Signal. 2008;6:e010. Epub 2008 Nov 26.
Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development.
Narayanan R, Mohler ML, Bohl CE, Miller DD, Dalton JT.
Preclinical Research and Development, GTx, Inc., Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(195):99-126.
Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.
Thevis M, Schänzer W.
Center for Preventive Doping Research - Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933, Cologne, Germany
Pharmacokinetics of S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide in rats, a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator
J. D. KEARBEY,† D. WU,† W. GAO,† D. D. MILLER,‡ and J. T. DALTON†* †Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
‡Department of Pharmaceutics, Graduate Health Sciences Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Oct;84(10):3459-62.
Selective androgen receptor modulators (sarms): a novel approach to androgen therapy for the new millennium.
Negro-Vilar A.
Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, California 92121, USA
Discovery and biological characterization of a novel series of androgen receptor modulators.
Zhou C, Wu G, Feng Y, Li Q, Su H, Mais DE, Zhu Y, Li N, Deng Y, Yang D, Wang MW
Design, synthesis, and biological characterization of metabolically stable selective androgen receptor modulators.
Marhefka CA, Gao W, Chung K, Kim J, He Y, Yin D, Bohl C, Dalton JT, Miller DD
Antiandrogens in prostate cancer.
Reid P, Kantoff P, Oh W.
Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber-Partners Cancer Care, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Emerging drugs for hypogonadism.
Edelstein D, Dobs A, Basaria S.
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baltimore, MD, USA
Anabolic applications of androgens for functional limitations associated with aging and chronic illness.
Bhasin S, Storer TW

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sarms versus Pro-Hormones and Pro steroids

Which One Wins As The Best Alternative To steroids?

When Pro-Hormones first hit the scene, anticipation was high. But it didn’t take long before it became obvious that these compounds were pretty weak in replicating the muscle building effects of real steroids. And to make matters worse, they carried most of the same negative side effects of steroids. That was not a winning combination. Over the years there were (supposed) improvements, one pretty much as bad as the next, until a new invention hit the market – the designer steroid. These didn’t act as precursors to anabolic and androgenic receptors, instead, they were actual steroids that have been manipulated in a way that they were able to get in under the wire of being classified as a controlled substance. They actually worked pretty well. And they were the best legal alternative to anabolic steroids to date. But times have changed.

Technically, Pro-hormones and pro-steroids are no longer allowed to be sold but it wouldn’t take much of a search to track some down. Many commercial health food stores still carry a copious line of pro-hormones and their collective imitators – all using various titles to manage staying commercially available. Unfortunately, these products have one major drawback. Not only are they as liver toxic as 17AA oral steroids, they’ve been shown to be kidney toxic as well. These risks should not be understated. Liver and kidney problems often go undetected until sever damage has been inflicted. Still, to many who did not want to go the route of dealing with the black market for steroids, they’re willing to take the risk since were the only choice. Until now.

The latest addition to non-steroidal muscle builders is sarms but unlike Pro hormones or Pro steroids, they aren’t an imitation of steroids -- they’re an improvement. And they aren’t being promoted by amateur chemists and supplement companies. Some of the top scientists and pharmaceutical companies are working on getting this to the market. But it’s available NOW. (For research purposes).

sarms (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators ) are a unique class of androgen receptor molecules. The intent is to have the same effects as steroids but are much more “selective” in their action – similar to testosterone but without the negative side effects, most notably prostate enlargement and possible carcinoma. Another benefit is that no injection is required. It comes in a non-toxic oral form that has a half-life of between 2.6 and 5.3 hours(1). The goal is to allow the customized response of entering muscle tissue that are the target of the therapy which in return will respond as they would to testosterone. Other tissues where undesirable side effects (such as the prostate) are produced will not be affected(2). To add to the benefits a new class of sarms called "sarms S-4" has shown to have little to no effect on the hpta unlike pro hormones or designer steroids. This means no post cycle therapy is needed after a cycle of S-4 and potensaily life long complications are avoided(3). S-4 has also shown little to no ability to convert to estrogen so gyno "a common problem with pro hormones" is also avoided(4).

To many researchers, scientist, pharmacologists and just about anyone familiar with anabolic enhancement, this is obviously a huge leap in the area of anabolic/androgenic enhancement. Whereas pro-hormones were sort-of like steroids, in that they create a facsimile some of the effects, sarms delivers steroid-like results in a big way. Comparing sarms to pro-hormones is like comparing a 47” HD flat screen Television to a 12” black and white TV with tubes. There’s just no way one isn’t light years better than the other.(5) And everyone who has tried both would agree.



Pro-Hormones and Pro-steroids are all based on a flawed principle – attempted to act similarly to steroids, yet avoid classification by altering some of the molecular structure. That’s the problem. Once you alter a molecule chain, it changes everything. And although some of the effects may remain, it’s essentially a fraudulent version of what you’re attempting to replicate. Pro hormones are actually discarded forms of steroids. The pharmaceutical companies deemed them so inferior they abandoned the technology. It was this same technology that was resurrected for no other reason other than to get a drug on the market that could be sold as a supplement. sarms is the opposite. It isn’t an imitation. It’s the next stage(6). Because Pro Hormones and designer steroids are made to be "like steroids" or are in fact a steroid analog they pose the problem of making WADA tested athletes test positive for steroids when tested. sarms S-4 however does no such thing and to this date there is no way to test for sarms S-4 ether in a athletes blood or urine So a athlete can safely take S-4 without fear of testing hot for a wada banned substance.

sarms.were developed for the same reasons as steroids – to prevent muscle wasting through increased nitrogen retention. The main difference is that instead of using the old technology on which all steroid are based, it incorporated state of the art discoveries. The results were astonishing – so much so that research has begun in the medical community in Europe and the results have been extremely positive. Those more adventurous individuals have already begun incorporating sarms for muscle building purposes and Hormone Replacement. And it looks as if sarms is here to stay.

sarms produces what many consider “high quality” muscle. The gains are very solid, unlike the results from many pro-hormones that are mostly water weight. sarms also has the added benefit of not being capable of aromatizing to estrogen(7).

It’s arguable that sarms is actually superior to pharmaceutical grade steroids. 50-100 mg a day will yield a similar result to 25- 50mg of an oral steroid like turinabol, but without the toxicity. Be that as it may, it’s evident that a cycle of sarms far superior to any pro-hormone or pro-steroid.

So there’s really no contest here. sarms blows away any Pro-hormone or OTC Pro-steroid on the market. One cycle is all it‘ll take to convince you.

REFERENCES:
resorption in rats. AAPS Pharm Sci. 2003;5 Abstract R6167.
9.Marhefka CA, Gao W, Chung K, Kim J, He Y, Yin D, Bohl C, Dalton JT, Miller DD. Design, synthesis, and biological characterization of metabolically stable selective androgen receptor modulators. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2003
Yin D, Gao W, Kearbey JD, Xu H, Chung K, He Y, Marhefka CA, Veverka KA, Miller DD, Dalton JT. Pharmacodynamics of selective androgen receptor modulators. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2003;304:1334–1340. [PubMed
Endocrinology. 2005 Nov;146(11):4887-97. Epub 2005 Aug 11.
Selective androgen receptor modulator treatment improves muscle strength and body composition and prevents bone loss in orchidectomized rats.
Gao W, Reiser PJ, Coss CC, Phelps MA, Kearbey JD, Miller DD, Dalton JT.
Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy and Department of Oral Biology, The Ohio State University, 500 West 12th Avenue, L. M. Parks Hall, Room 242, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Pharmacokinetics of S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide in rats, a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator
J. D. KEARBEY,† D. WU,† W. GAO,† D. D. MILLER,‡ and J. T. DALTON†*
†Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
‡Department of Pharmaceutics, Graduate Health Sciences Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Selective androgen receptor modulator treatment improves muscle strength and body composition and prevents bone loss in orchidectomized rats.
Gao W, Reiser PJ, Coss CC, Phelps MA, Kearbey JD, Miller DD, Dalton JT.
Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy and Department of Oral Biology, The Ohio State University, 500 West 12th Avenue, L. M. Parks Hall, Room 242, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
In vivo metabolism and final disposition of a novel nonsteroidal androgen in rats and dogs.
Perera MA, Yin D, Wu D, Chan KK, Miller DD, Dalton J.
Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 West 12th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Pharmacokinetics of S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide in rats, a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator
J. D. KEARBEY,† D. WU,† W. GAO,† D. D. MILLER,‡ and J. T. DALTON†*
†Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
‡Department of Pharmaceutics, Graduate Health Sciences Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.


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Synthroid (levothyroxine)
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Synthroid (levothyroxine) - 05-28-2012, 06:29 PM



Synthroid is a compound used in the treatment of hypothyroidism. Its major function in the body is to aid in the metabolism of fat into protein. In bodybuilding circles Synthroid is used before contests to give the user an extra lean look. It also has the added bonus of giving users some extra energy from the calories burned in the fat.

Synthroid has been found to work especially well with HGH and has seen a bit of resurgence in popularity as HGH becomes more widely used in bodybuilding and athletic circles.


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