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Non Nutrative sweetners Info
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Non Nutrative sweetners Info - 12-05-2016, 09:43 PM

Nutritive sweeteners add caloric value to the foods that contain them, while non-nutritive sweeteners are very low in calories or contain no calories at all. Specifically, aspartame, the only approved nutritive high-intensity sweetener, contains more than two percent of the calories in an equivalent amount of sugar, as opposed to non-nutritive sweeteners that contain less than two percent of the calories in an equivalent amount of sugar.
High-intensity sweeteners are ingredients used to sweeten and enhance the flavor of foods. Because high-intensity sweeteners are many times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose), smaller amounts of high-intensity sweeteners are needed to achieve the same level of sweetness as sugar in food. They do not contribute calories or only contribute a few calories to the diet. High-intensity sweeteners also generally will not raise blood sugar levels.


A high intensity sweetener is regulated as a food additive, unless its use as a sweetener is generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The use of a food additive must undergo premarket review and approval by FDA before it can be used in food. In contrast, use of a GRAS substance does not require premarket approval.


Aspartame is a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine.
Chemical name - N-(L-α-Aspartyl)-L-phenylalanine,1-methyl ester
Chemical formula - C14H18N2O5
Brand name - Nutrasweet®, Equal®, and Sugar Twin®, NutraSweet® or Canderel®.
Interesting facts - FDA approved aspartame in 1981 (46 FR 38283), 1983 (48 FR 31376) and 1996 for uses, under certain conditions, as a tabletop sweetener, in chewing gum, cold breakfast cereals, and dry bases for certain foods, carbonated beverages and carbonated beverage syrup bases and as a "general purpose sweetener." It is not heat stable and loses its sweetness when heated, so it typically isn’t used in baked goods. Aspartame is one of the most exhaustively studied substances in the human food supply, with more than 100 studies supporting its safety. People with a rare hereditary disease known as phenylketonuria (PKU) have a difficult time metabolizing phenylalanine, a component of aspartame. it is about 200 times sweeter than table sugar.
ADI - The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food has determined this value is 40 mg/kg of body weight for aspartame,[46] while FDA has set its ADI for aspartame at 50 mg/kg.


Acesulfame Potassium (Ace-K) is
Made from - is the potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide.
Chemical formula - C4H4KNO4S
Brand name - Sunett® and Sweet One®
Interesting facts - FDA approved acesulfame potassium for use in specific food and beverage categories in 1988 (53 FR 28379), and in 2003 approved it as a general purpose sweetener and flavor enhancer in food, except in meat and poultry. It is about 200 times sweeter than sugar and is often combined with other sweeteners.
ADI - 15mg per kg of body weight


Advantame is a non-caloric sweetener from Japan's Ajinomoto Co.
Made from - It is synthesized from isovanillin and aspartame.
Chemical formula - C24H30N2O7
Brand name - none
Interesting facts - FDA approved advantame for use as a general purpose sweetener and flavor enhancer in foods (except in meat and poultry), under certain conditions of use, in 2014. It is approximately 20,000 times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose)
ADI - 32.8mg per kg of body weight


Neotame is approved for use in food as a non-nutritive sweetener.
Made from - It is chemically similar to the artificial sweetener aspartame, but is used at vastly lower levels and is more stable.[5] Chemically, it has a 3,3-dimethylbutyl group attached to the amino group of the aspartic acid portion of the molecule. Peptidases, which would typically break the peptide bond between the aspartic acid and phenylalanine moieties, are effectively blocked by the presence of the 3,3-dimethylbutyl moiety, thus reducing the production of phenylalanine during metabolism of the chemical. As a result, it is safe for consumption by those who suffer from phenylketonuria. ("Neotame". Ingredient Listings. Science Toys. Retrieved 2007-08-31)
Chemical formula - C20H30N2O5
Brand name - Newtame®
Interesting facts - FDA approved neotame for use as a general purpose sweetener and flavor enhancer in foods (except in meat and poultry), under certain conditions of use, in 2002 . is approximately 7,000 to 13,000 times sweeter than table sugar.
ADI - 0.3mg per kg of body weight


Saccharin is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. It is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, cookies, medicines, and toothpaste.
Made from - The original route by Remsen and Fahlberg starts with toluene; another route begins with o-chlorotoluene. (Bungard, G. (1967) Die SusStoffe Der Deut Apotheker, 19, 150.) Sulfonation of toluene by chlorosulfonic acid gives the ortho and para substituted sulfonyl chlorides. The ortho isomer is separated and converted to the sulfonamide with ammonia. Oxidation of the methyl substituent gives the carboxylic acid, which cyclicizes to give saccharin free acid (Gert-Wolfhard von Rymon Lipinski (2005), "Sweeteners", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_023). In 1950, an improved synthesis was developed at the Maumee Chemical Company of Toledo, Ohio. In this synthesis, the methyl anthranilate successively reacts with nitrous acid (from sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid), sulfur dioxide, chlorine, and then ammonia to yield saccharin (Gert-Wolfhard von Rymon Lipinski (2005), "Sweeteners", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_023).
Chemical formula - C7H5NO3S
Brand name - Sweet and Low® Sweet Twin® Sweet'N Low® Necta Sweet®
Interesting facts - First discovered and used in 1879, saccharin is currently approved for use, under certain conditions, in beverages, fruit juice drinks, and bases or mixes when prepared for consumption in accordance with directions, as a sugar substitute for cooking or table use, and in processed foods. It is 200 to 700 times sweeter than table sugar. In the early 1970s, saccharin was linked with the development of bladder cancer in laboratory rats, which led Congress to mandate additional studies of saccharin and the presence of a warning label on saccharin-containing products until such warning could be shown to be unnecessary. Since then, more than 30 human studies demonstrated that the results found in rats were not relevant to humans, and that saccharin is safe for human consumption. In 2000, the National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health concluded that saccharin should be removed from the list of potential carcinogens. Products containing saccharin no longer have to carry the warning label.
ADI - 15mg per kg of body weight.


Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle (Luo Han Guo) fruit extracts (SGFE) is is a herbaceous perennial vine of the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family, native to southern China and northern Thailand.
Made from - fruit extract
Brand name - Nectresse® , Monk Fruit in the Raw®, and PureLo®
Interesting facts - is reported to be 100 to 250 times sweeter than sugar.
ADI - A numerical ADI may not be deemed necessary for several reasons, including evidence of the ingredient's safety at levels well above the amounts needed to achieve the desired effect (e.g., as a sweetener) in food.


steviol glycosides are purified glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.
Made from - Steviol glycosides are natural constituents of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana
Brand name - Truvia®, PureVia®, and Enliten®.
Interesting facts - reported to be 200 to 400 times sweeter than table sugar.
ADI - 4mg per kg of body weight. ADI established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)


Sucralose is an non-nutritive artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.
Made from - is manufactured by the selective chlorination of sucrose in a multistep synthesis, which substitutes three of the hydroxyl groups of sucrose with chlorine atoms
Chemical formula - C12H19Cl3O8
Brand name - Splenda®
Interesting facts - is about 600 times sweeter than sugar.
ADI - 5mg per kg of body weight


I personally do not use these products. I try to not drink soda or drinks that use artificial sweeteners but it is hard because the market is saturated with products that use them because they are cost effective. Pure can sugar is very expensive and other natural sources are not manufacturing economic. I think these chemicals and all chemicals will change the way humans evolve just like how our environment changes us over time.
   
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12-08-2016, 10:05 PM

Great read
I myself can't use artificial sweeteners - had 5 minie strokes from the blue packets
Been clear for the past 3 years so far
   
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12-08-2016, 10:49 PM

Always great reading. Thanks sir.



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12-09-2016, 12:58 AM

Quote:
Originally Posted by squatster View Post
Great read
I myself can't use artificial sweeteners - had 5 minie strokes from the blue packets
Been clear for the past 3 years so far
Wow, that sucks man. After researching FDA and clinical studies for my report, I was amazed of how bad the stuff really is.
   
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