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Anavar Research
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Anavar Research - 12-28-2011, 08:17 PM

Posted by: Muay Thai

Short-term oxandrolone administration stimulates net muscle protein synthesis in young men.Sheffield-Moore M, Urban RJ, Wolf SE, Jiang J, Catlin DH, Herndon DN, Wolfe RR, Ferrando AA.
Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, and Shriners Burn Hospital for Children, Galveston 77550, USA. [email protected]

Short term administration of testosterone stimulates net protein synthesis in healthy men. We investigated whether oxandrolone [Oxandrin (OX)], a synthetic analog of testosterone, would improve net muscle protein synthesis and transport of amino acids across the leg. Six healthy men [22+/-1 (+/-SE) yr] were studied in the postabsorptive state before and after 5 days of oral OX (15 mg/day). Muscle protein synthesis and breakdown were determined by a three-compartment model using stable isotopic data obtained from femoral arterio-venous sampling and muscle biopsy. The precursor-product method was used to determine muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. Fractional breakdown rates were also directly calculated. Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) concentrations of skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor I and androgen receptor (AR) were determined using RT-PCR. Model-derived muscle protein synthesis increased from 53.5+/-3 to 68.3+/-5 (mean+/-SE) nmol/min.100 mL/leg (P < 0.05), whereas protein breakdown was unchanged. Inward transport of amino acids remained unchanged with OX, whereas outward transport decreased (P < 0.05). The fractional synthetic rate increased 44% (P < 0.05) after OX administration, with no change in fractional breakdown rate. Therefore, the net balance between synthesis and breakdown became more positive with both methodologies (P < 0.05) and was not different from zero. Further, RT-PCR showed that OX administration significantly increased mRNA concentrations of skeletal muscle AR without changing insulin-like growth factor I mRNA concentrations. We conclude that short term OX administration stimulated an increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and improved intracellular reutilization of amino acids. The mechanism for this stimulation may be related to an OX-induced increase in AR expression in skeletal muscle.

Testosterone injection stimulates net protein synthesis but not tissue amino acid transport.Ferrando AA, Tipton KD, Doyle D, Phillips SM, Cortiella J, Wolfe RR.
Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77550, USA.

Testosterone administration (T) increases lean body mass and muscle protein synthesis. We investigated the effects of short-term T on leg muscle protein kinetics and transport of selected amino acids by use of a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis (FSR) and breakdown (FBR) rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Seven healthy men were studied before and 5 days after intramuscular injection of 200 mg of testosterone enanthate. protein synthesis increased twofold after injection (P < 0.05), whereas protein breakdown was unchanged. FSR and FBR calculations were in accordance, because FSR increased twofold (P < 0.05) without a concomitant change in FBR. Net balance between synthesis and breakdown became more positive with both methodologies (P < 0.05) and was not different from zero. T injection increased arteriovenous essential and nonessential nitrogen balance across the leg (P < 0.05) in the fasted state, without increasing amino acid transport. Thus T administration leads to an increased net protein synthesis and reutilization of intracellular amino acids in skeletal muscle

Insulin action on muscle protein kinetics and amino acid transport during recovery after resistance exercise.Biolo G, Williams BD, Fleming RY, Wolfe RR.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, and the Shriners Burns Hospital, Galveston, USA.

We have determined the individual and combined effects of insulin and prior exercise on leg muscle protein synthesis and degradation, amino acid transport, glucose uptake, and alanine metabolism. Normal volunteers were studied in the postabsorptive state at rest and about 3 h after a heavy leg resistance exercise routine. The leg arteriovenous balance technique was used in combination with stable isotopic tracers of amino acids and biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. Insulin was infused into a femoral artery to increase the leg insulin concentrations to high physiologic levels without substantively affecting the whole-body level. protein synthesis and degradation were determined as rates of intramuscular phenylalanine utilization and appearance, and muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) was also determined. Leg blood flow was greater after exercise than at rest (P<0.05). Insulin accelerated blood flow at rest but not after exercise (P<0.05). The rates of protein synthesis and degradation were greater during the postexercise recovery (65+/-10 and 74+/-10 nmol x min(-1) x 100 ml(-1) leg volume, respectively) than at rest (30+/-7 and 46+/-8 nmol x min(-1) x 100 ml(-1) leg volume, respectively; P<0.05). Insulin infusion increased protein synthesis at rest (51+/-4 nmol x min(-1) x 100 ml(-1) leg volume) but not during the postexercise recovery (64+/-9 nmol x min(-1) x 100 ml(-1) leg volume; P<0.05). Insulin infusion at rest did not change the rate of protein degradation (48+/-3 nmol x min(-1) 100 ml(-1) leg volume). In contrast, insulin infusion after exercise significantly decreased the rate of protein degradation (52+/-9 nmol x min(-1) x 100 ml(-1) leg volume). The insulin stimulatory effects on inward alanine transport and glucose uptake were three times greater during the postexercise recovery than at rest (P<0.05). In contrast, the insulin effects on phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine transport were similar at rest and after exercise. In conclusion, the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake and alanine transport and to suppress protein degradation in skeletal muscle is increased after resistance exercise. Decreased amino acid availability may limit the stimulatory effect of insulin on muscle protein synthesis after exercise.

Nutritional and pharmacological support of the metabolic response to injury.Herndon DN.
Shriners Hospitals for Children-Galveston Burns Hospital, SHC-G, Professor of Pediatrics &amp; Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, UTMB, USA. [email protected]

Severe burn incites metabolic disturbances which last up to one year post injury. Persistent profound catabolism after severe burn hampers rehabilitative efforts delaying meaningful return of individuals to society. The simplest effective anabolic strategies for severe burn injuries are early excision and grafting of the burn wound, prompt treament of sepsis, maintenance of environmental temperature at 30-32 inverted exclamation mark C, continuous enteral feeding of a high carbohydrate, high protein diet, early institution of vigorous resistive and aerobic resistive exercise programs. To further minimize erosion of lean body mass administration of recombinant human growth hormone, insulin, oxandrolone or propranolol are all reasonable approaches. Exogenous continuous low dose insulin infusion, beta blockade with propranolol and the use of the synthetic testosterone analog, oxandrolone are the most cost effective and least toxic pharmaco therapies to date.

The effect of oxandrolone treatment on human osteoblastic cells.Bi LX, Wiren KM, Zhang XW, Oliveira GV, Klein GL, Mainous EG, Herndon DN.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: Oxandrolone, administered to severely burned children over the first year postburn, produces increased lean body mass by 6 months; however, an increase in total body bone mineral requires 12 months. Consequently, this bone mineral response may be due to increased muscle mass. Alternatively, oxandrolone may act directly on bone. The current study seeks to determine whether oxandrolone can transactivate the androgen receptor in osteoblasts. METHODS: Collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and androgen receptor abundance were determined by qRT-PCR, confocal laser scanning microscopy, or immunoquantitative assay. To determine the effect of oxandrolone on gene expression in differentiated cells, osteocytic cultures were grown to confluence in differentiation medium and then treated 24 hours or 5 days with 15 microg/mL oxandrolone. RESULTS: Increased nuclear fluorescence of the androgen receptor and increased cellular type I collagen were observed with oxandrolone at 15 and 30 microg/mL but not at lower doses. Alkaline phosphatase (7%-20%) and osteocalcin (13%-18%) increases were modest but significant. Short-term treatment produced no significant effects, but at 5 days androgen receptor levels were increased while collagen levels were significantly decreased, with little effect on alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, or osteoprotegerin. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest oxandrolone can stimulate production of osteoblast differentiation markers in proliferating osteoblastic cells, most likely through the androgen receptor; however, with longer treatment in mature cells, oxandrolone decreases collagen expression. Thus it is possible that oxandrolone given to burned children acts directly on immature osteoblasts to stimulate collagen production, but also may have positive effects to increase bone mineral through other mechanisms

Oxandrolone enhances skeletal muscle myosin synthesis and alters global gene expression profile in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.Balagopal P, Olney R, Darmaun D, Mougey E, Dokler M, Sieck G, Hammond D.
Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32207, USA. [email protected]

Earlier studies have shown that the progressive, unrelenting muscle loss associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) involves an imbalance between the rates of synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Although previous studies have suggested that oxandrolone may be beneficial in DMD, the mechanism of action of oxandrolone on muscle in DMD remains unclear. To address these issues, we combined stable isotope studies and gene expression analysis to measure the fractional synthesis rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC), the key muscle contractile protein, the transcript levels of the isoforms of MHC, and global gene expression profiles in four children with DMD before and after 3 mo of treatment with oxandrolone. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected during the course of a primed 6-h continuous infusion of l-[U-(13)C]leucine on two separate occasions, before and after the 3-mo treatment with oxandrolone (0.1 Gene expression analysis was done with microarrays and RT-qPCR. In response to the treatment, MHC synthesis rate increased 42%, and this rise was accounted for, at least in part, by an upregulation of the transcript for MHC8 (perinatal MHC). Gene expression data suggested a decrease in muscle regeneration as a consequence of oxandrolone therapy, presumably because of a decrease in muscle degeneration. These findings suggest that 1) oxandrolone has a powerful protein anabolic effect on a key contractile protein and 2) larger and longer-term studies are warranted to determine whether these changes translate into meaningful therapy for these patients.

Comparing Oxandrin and Anadrol-50.Vazquez E.
AIDS: Oxandrin and Anadrol-50 are both oral anabolic steroids approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and they are competing for market share in the world of HIV treatments. Both are described as "open label" drugs and as such, are prescribed to reverse wasting and metabolic complications associated with HIV. Anadrol-50 is among the most potent steroids ever developed for building muscle, and study participants gained an average of 14.5 pounds for each 100 pounds of weight. Early studies indicate minimal side effects with liver toxicity, but that is not a certainty since oral anabolics are known for liver toxicity. Many studies have documented Oxandrin's safety and effectiveness in treating HIV wasting. It is metabolized in the kidney and acts without the masculinizing side effects associated with other steroids, such as Anadrol-50. One study showed an average weight gain of 24 pounds following 8 months of treatment. Oxandrin is the best choice for those at the earliest stages of AIDS wasting syndrome. However, when a more aggressive treatment is necessary, Anadrol-50 is stronger, less expensive, and more effective, but liver function must be monitored closely.

Oxandrolone for weight gain.[No authors listed]
AIDS: Oxandrolone, an oral drug that promotes weight gain in people experiencing weight loss, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with HIV. Oxandrolone's effectiveness in HIV-related weight loss is unknown. The drug is a man-made anabolic steroid. Several small studies have shown encouraging results for HIV-related weight loss when doses two to eight times the recommended dosage were used. Daily doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg appear to be needed for treating HIV-associated wasting syndrome. A host of side effects usually associated with anabolic steroids are not seen as frequently with oxandrolone, including liver toxicity. More information can be obtained by contacting the Project Inform Hotline.

Treatment with an anabolic agent is associated with improvement in respiratory function in persons with tetraplegia: a pilot study.Spungen AM, Grimm DR, Strakhan M, Pizzolato PM, Bauman WA.
Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with cervical spinal cord lesions. Strengthening of the respiratory musculature may reduce these complications. Anabolic steroids have been used to increase muscle mass and improve muscle performance. Oxandrolone, an anabolic steroid, may have beneficial effects on breathing in persons with tetraplegia. METHODS: The effect of one-month treatment with oxandrolone on weight gain and pulmonary function was studied in ten subjects with complete motor tetraplegia. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, and resting self-rating of dyspnea (Borg Scale) were measured at baseline and repeated again at the end of one month of oxandrolone therapy (20 mg/day). Serum lipid profiles and liver function tests were performed before and after treatment. A paired t-test was used to determine pre- and post-treatment differences on the dependent variables. Percent change from baseline was calculated for each variable and tested using a one-sample t-test. RESULTS: On average, the subjects gained 1.4+/-1.5 kg, a 2+/-2% increase in weight (p=0.01). A significant, 9+/-2% improvement was found in the combined measures of spirometry (p<0.005). Maximal inspiratory pressure improved an average of 10+/-7% (p<0.001). Maximal expiratory pressure improved 9+/-13% (non-significant). Subjective self-rating of dyspnea decreased an average of 37+/-28% (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects with tetraplegia, the use of oxandrolone was associated with significant improvements in weight and pulmonary function, and a subjective reduction in breathlessness. Therefore, oxandrolone may be indicated to strengthen respiratory musculature in individuals who have tetraplegia and ventilatory insufficiency aggravated by superimposition of pneumonia or other such conditions. However, long-term use of oxandrolone may not be indicated, due to the adverse complications associated with this class of agents.
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